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Sol Plaatje,
Native Life in South Africa

Chapter 18

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Introduction etc. | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Chapter 7 | Chapter 8 | Chapter 9 | Chapter 10 | Chapter 11 | Chapter 12 | Chapter 13 | Chapter 14 | Chapter 15 | Chapter 16 | Chapter 17 | Chapter 18 | Chapter 19 | Chapter 20 | Chapter 21 | Chapter 22 | Chapter 23 | Chapter 24 | Appendices etc.

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Chapter XVIII   The P.S.A. and Brotherhoods

  The Brotherhood must help not only the spiritual part of life,
    but also in social matters.  They should always help the down-trodden,
    showing the brotherly feeling which was portrayed throughout
    the life of Christ.
                                       Rt. Hon. A. Henderson, M.P.,
                President of the Brotherhood Movement, at Weston-super-Mare.

In a previous chapter we mentioned a yellow-covered newspaper which
abused our English friends for supporting the appeal of the native deputation.
It characterized the advocacy of the aims of the deputation by the Brotherhood
as "Rubbish -- a commodity which can always be picked up,
and quite a lot of people spend much of their time in collecting it."
"Why," exclaims this paper with indignation, "we had imagined
that the `Brotherhood' movement was of a religious nature."

Our answer to this taunt is, that just because the Brotherhood movement
opposes the Natives' Land Act it must be religious,
for Anglican Bishops in South Africa have denounced this law
in their episcopal charges (vide `Church Chronicle', 1913, October issues),
and Anglican Bishops in South Africa are nothing if they are not religious.
Nonconformist Ministers have condemned this law in their annual
synods and conferences.  Ex-Premier W. P. Schreiner, K.C., C.M.G.,
at present the London representative of the Union of South Africa,
is the son of an old South African missionary.  He was member of
the Union Parliament when this law was passed and was one of the few senators
who had the pluck to vote against it after condemning it;
and it is monstrous to suggest that these pious and learned men
could conspire to denounce a law just for the pleasure of denouncing it.
And to our untutored mind it seems that if it be true that all these good men
are working for the spread of Christ's Kingdom in South Africa,
then we must be pardoned the inference that in the same country
protagonists of this Act are working for the establishment of another kingdom.
This inference grows into a belief when it is recalled that the men
who are responsible for the recent commotion are the very men
who forced this law upon the Government.

In the various reports of the South African Church Synods of 1915,
the character of this "Church closing" law stands out in bold relief,
and it is there revealed as an opponent of Christ and His work.  Let us refer
to only one of them.  "The native work of the (Transvaal) District
has been seriously hampered by the operation of the Natives' Land Act.
As the result of evictions under the Act, some of the Churches on farms
have ceased to exist."  -- Cape `Methodist Churchman', Jan. 22, 1915.

The numerous South African opponents of this law had no share
in the recent upheaval, and the Brotherhoods by lending their platforms
to a campaign in opposition to a law that emanates from such a quarter
show that their cause, in addition to religion, is on the side of law,
order, and constitutional liberty.  We know, of course,
that no doctrine of liberty would be acceptable in South Africa
that did not also imply "liberty to ill-treat the blacks".
Hence the Brotherhood propaganda, being colour-blind,
explains the fury of the London mouthpiece of "lily-white" South Africa.

Early in July the deputation called at the Brotherhood headquarters
in Norfolk Street, Strand, to explain to the National Brotherhood Council
the object of their mission.  Mr. William Ward, the national secretary,
received the deputation in person; Mr. John McIntosh, secretary to
the London Federation, Mr. W. Mann and other officers being also present.
They invited the deputation to the Quarterly Meeting of the London Federation
at Bishopsgate on July 14, 1914, after which the deputation received
invitations to address meetings in various parts.  Some of these engagements
still remain unfulfilled.  A list of the centres visited is given
at the end of this chapter.

At the Bishopsgate gathering Mr. Will Crooks, M.P., was the "star turn".
He welcomed the deputation and regretted the cold reception accorded to it
by the Colonial Secretary.  He added, however, that if they proceeded
along the same moderate lines followed by Dr. Rubusana and Mr. Msane
(the two members of the deputation who spoke that evening)
he felt certain that they would do more good for their cause in the country
than they did at the Colonial Office.

The `Brotherhood Journal', the newspaper organ of the movement said: --

                         Bear ye one another's Burdens

For Brotherhood men and women there can be only one response to their appeal.
For Brotherhood is not only between man and man, but between
nation and nation, and race and race.

In our movement, at any rate, there can be no colour bar to love and justice.
If our Brotherhoods did not rise to a cause like this, we might well question
the reality of their fraternal pretensions.

We are told that the problem has its difficulties.  No doubt.
But they can be overcome, if only our statesmen will act
in a spirit of courage and faith.  Surely empire means not only
privilege and power and glory, but also responsibility and obligations.
If it means only commercial profit, and injustice is to be done with impunity
under the Imperial flag,
                       Of what worth is such an Empire?

This is a matter in which every one of our members should exert
the force of opinion on the side of right.  Let us open
to our coloured brothers' cause our platforms and our hearts.

The five members of the deputation will be in this country for some months,
and are prepared to address Brotherhoods and Sisterhoods,
and to send information as to their case to any who wish it.

We doubt not that they will find in our midst not only
a most sympathetic hearing, but active help in educating public opinion
in this country, in order that a great wrong may be righted.

How unlike so many poor attempts at brotherhood, organized in
the name of Christianity, especially in our part of the globe,
where "they have made the welkin ring with the sorrowful tale
of the unfortunate condition of the weak, but, like the rich man
in the parable, they liked their Lazarus afar off," and considered their
fraternal pretensions satisfied if they sent their dogs to lick his wounds.
No, the Brotherhood movement is no such parody.  It is practical Christianity
which knows no distinction of colour or boundaries between nations.
Our nine months' association with Brother Martin and Brother Timberlake,
of the Shernhall Brotherhood, confirms this view; and our acquaintanceship
with other members of this wonderful movement (which counts
judges and members of Parliament as well as factory hands
among its office-bearers) satisfied the writer that they are always ready
to practise what they preach.

A noteworthy occasion in connexion with the campaign was our visit
to the Southall Brotherhood on Sunday, March 14.  We can hardly
forget the day; it was on Crocus Sunday when thousands of Londoners
went to Hampton Court in crowds to see the crocus bulbs in bloom.
It was a glorious day and we remember it as the second day in 1915 on which
the European sun shone through a cloudless sky from sunrise to sunset.
Thousands of people attended at Hyde Park to witness the church parade,
and still more thousands took advantage of the glorious spring day
after a strenuous winter to flock to Epping Forest and other popular resorts.

In the afternoon we took part in an Imperial indoor demonstration
organized by the "Southall Men's Own" at the Central Hall.
Mr. William Cross of Hanwell represented England; Mr. T. Owens, F.C.I.S.,
represented Wales; Mr. S. S. A. Cambridge, a black barrister,
represented his homeland, British Guiana; Miss Ruth Bucknall, the celebrated
lyric soprano, who artistically contributed the solos, represented Australia;
while Scotland and the Emerald Isle were also represented
in the orchestra and elsewhere in the hall; Mr. and Mrs. Lionel Boote,
of Auckland, New Zealand, represented "the most English of the Colonies"
(unfortunately the Indian representative could not reach Southall in time),
and the writer represented South Africa, the baby member
of the British family.

Among such intellectual giants, one was inclined at the outset
to feel somewhat out of place, but thanks to the encouraging Brotherhood cheer
which always accompany their reception of a speaker, the stripling
soon finds himself at home, as is always the case on any Brotherhood platform,
and that was how we felt that day.

Mr. W. Cross said, in part, that one of the most striking proofs
of the unity of the Empire was shown in the splendid way
that men had come forward to assist the Mother Country
on the battlefields of Europe from all parts of our Dominions.
The coloured men from India had come as free men and fellow-subjects
to do their share.  The Empire was composed of territories and people --
once separated by race and creed, now united under one flag.
There was a great resemblance between Brotherhood and Empire.
In it all kinds of religion were represented, yet all were united
in one great principle.  It had been said the soul of Russia was pity,
of France reason, and of Britain justice.  No Empire could be built to stand
unless based on justice and freedom.  The principle of freedom underlay Empire
as it underlay Brotherhood also.  There was no limit to the Empire
that was founded upon unity, toleration, justice, and liberty;
it surely had no end.  Similarly there was no frontier
to the kingdom of Brotherhood, and they looked for a kingdom out-spanning
far beyond the roll of British drums -- the kingdom of Brotherhood --
the kingdom of Christ.

Referring to the limitations of colour in South Africa, Mr. Cambridge said:
"Have you no cattle and sheep in South Africa?  Are there no birds?
Have you not observed that they are of different colours and yet are not
restricted in their flight on that account; and are you going to run counter
to the work of nature in regard to human beings?  The British Empire
has a population of over 430,000,000, of which less than 100,000,000
are white, and there was a big problem to solve:  `How to rule
with justice and equity this great multitude of various races and creeds
and consolidate them as fellow-subjects of one great and mighty Empire.'
The future of the British Empire could be secured by following
the high ideals of `Brotherhood' which were foreshadowed by Christ
in the Bible, and by great writers such as Shakespeare and Addison.
The fall of Rome was due to her failure to recognize the duty
of welding her subjects together as brothers one and all
under the Fatherhood of God. . . ."

It is a pity that the argument used by Mr. Cambridge would not go down
with the majority of the rulers in South Africa.  If it did
one would remind them that even South African ladies pay
higher prices for black silks than they do for white silks;
that the value of domestic animals does not as a whole appear
to be influenced by their colour:  thus, whereas the fleece of white sheep
commands a higher price in the South African wool market
than the fleece of black sheep, their mutton has about the same flavour.
Again of horned cattle, which give the same quality of beef,
irrespective of colour; farmers will tell you of them
that coloured cattle are among the best for farming and other purposes,
while white bullocks are subject to sore eyes, and white cows
continually suffer from erythema of the nipples (`Garget-mammitis');
yet we have not heard that this peculiarity had any influence
on the quality of their beef or the quality of the milk they give.
The springbuck, whence the best South African venison is obtained,
has the colours of black, white and brown; and this blend has not prevented it
from having the reputation of being the prettiest and most graceful antelope
in the world.  But argument in this respect is simply wasted
on the ruling caste in South Africa:  there, Mr. Cross's views
about "freedom, liberty," etc., will simply be laughed out of court,
unless he limits them to white men; so that one sometimes wonders
whether Christ's metaphor about "casting pearls before swine" does not find
an application here.  Look at the weighty arguments delivered
inside and outside Parliament against the Natives' Land Act.
Surely no legislature with a sense of responsibility could have
passed that law after hearing arguments of such force and weight against it;
but the South African legislature passed that Act and seems to glory
in the wretched result of its operation.

Mr. Boote expressed his pride in finding how shining was the native policy
of New Zealand when contrasted with the native policy of South Africa.
"Why," said Mrs. Boote to us, with evident satisfaction,
"we have got Maori members of Parliament and our country
is all the better for it."  She had every justification to look pleased
at the comparison which reveals the justice of her country's rule,
for we remember how the women of New Zealand got the vote.
The white members of Parliament in New Zealand were equally divided
on the Women's Enfranchisement Bill; but for the native members,
there would have been a tie, as was the case in South Africa three years ago,
when the white members of the South African Parliament,
as seemed likely there, wheedled the Women's Suffrage Bill out of the House.
Happily for Women's Franchise in the Antipodes the Maori members
voted solidly for the Bill and secured the passage of a reform which,
judging by the satisfactory results in Australia and elsewhere,
gave the lead to the rest of the Empire.

It was at Hammersmith, where the chairman after hearing
our story of the operation of the Natives' Land Act,
in moving a resolution, in a sympathetic speech, asked:  "Why did we
spend 240,000,000 Pounds and kill 10,000 men in the South African War
if this is the result?"  He asked the permission of the audience to change
the last hymn on the programme and sing the Brotherhood Song of Liberty.

As the newspaper `South Africa' seems to insinuate that
the Brotherhood movement by allying itself with our cause
had deviated from its aims and objects, we would explain that the chairman
did not run out of the meeting to borrow a book from somewhere
containing that song.  The song is No. 26 of the `Fellowship Hymnal' --
the hymn-book of the P.S.A. and Brotherhoods.

At subsequent meetings it had often been our pleasure,
after delivering the message from the South African Natives,
to sit down and hear the chairman give out that hymn,
and the orchestra lead off with the tune of Costa's March of the Israelites.
A pleasant variety was lent to it at the Victoria Brotherhood
in Monmouthshire, which we visited on the first Sunday in 1915.
There the chairman gave out the now familiar hymn, and the grand organ chimed
the more familiar tune of "Jesu, lover of my soul" (Hollingside's),
and the variety lent extra freshness to the singing of
the Brotherhood Song of Liberty, which is reproduced: --

    Men whose boast it is that ye
    Come of fathers brave and free,
    If there breathe on earth a slave,
    Are ye truly free and brave?
    If ye do not feel the chain
    When it works a brother's pain,
    Are ye not base slaves indeed --
    Slaves unworthy to be freed?

    Is true freedom but to break
    Fetters for our own dear sake,
    And with leathern hearts forget
    That we owe mankind a debt?
    No! true freedom is to share
    All the chains our brothers wear,
    And with heart and hand to be
    Earnest to make others free.

    They are slaves who fear to speak
    For the fallen and the weak;
    They are slaves who will not choose
    Hatred, scoffing, and abuse,
    Rather than in silence shrink
    From the truth they needs must think:
    They are slaves who dare not be
    In the right with two or three.

                                       J. R. Lowell.

         P.S.A. and Brotherhood Societies Addressed by the Deputation
                   and the Order in Which They Were Visited
                     [Modified from original table format]

              [a]  Society.  [b]  Name of President or Secretary.
            [c]  Where Meetings are Held.  [d]  By Whom Addressed.

[a]  1.  London Federation of Brotherhoods  [b]  Mr. John McIntosh
[c]  230, Bishopsgate, E.C.  [d]  Mr. Saul Msane, Dr. W. B. Rubusana

[a]  2.  Tooting Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. E. Aldom French
[c]  Wesleyan Central Hall, Tooting, S.W.  [d]  Mr. Saul Msane,
Dr. W. B. Rubusana

[a]  3.  Willesden Green Men's Own Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. H. J. Weaver
[c]  Baptist Church, High Road, Willesden Green  [d]  Mr. Sol T. Plaatje,
Mr. T. M. Mapikela

[a]  4.  Westbourne Park Brotherhood  [b]  Dr. J. Clifford, MA.DD.
[c]  Baptist Church, Bayswater, W.  [d]  Dr. W. B. Rubusana

[a]  5.  Willesden P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. W. Springbett
[c]  Primitive Methodist Church, Willesden Green  [d]  Dr. W. B. Rubusana,
Mr. T. M. Mapikela

[a]  6.  East Ham Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. W. H. Armstrong  [c]  Central Hall,
Barking Road, East Ham  [d]  Dr. W. B. Rubusana, Mr. T. M. Mapikela

[a]  7.  Tooting Graveny Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. A. Riding  [c]  Central Hall,
Tooting, Broadway  [d]  Mr. Saul Msane

[a]  8.  Men's Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. A. Clifford Hall
[c]  Congregational Church, Greenwich Rd., S.E.  [d]  Mr. Saul Msane

[a]  9.  Hammersmith Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. J. W. Butters
[c]  Albion Congregational Church, Hammersmith  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  10.  Shern Hall Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. W. H. Jennings
[c]  United Methodist Church, Whipps Cross  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  11.  Swanscombe Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. E. Pallant  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
Swanscombe, near Northfleet  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  12.  Clifton Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. F. Hastings
[c]  Congregational Church, Peckham Rye  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  13.  Abertillery P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. Wm. Davies  [c]  The Pavilion,
Abertillery, South Wales  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  14.  Abertillery P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. E. Jefferies  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
Abertillery, South Wales  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  15.  Barking Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. W. Barnard  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
Barking, Essex  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  16.  Willesden Green Men's Own  [b]  Mr. C. E. Pink  [c]  Baptist Church,
High Rd., Willesden Green  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  17.  Victoria Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. J. W. Hall  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
Newport, Monmouthshire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  18.  Marsh Street Men's Own Brotherhood (Men's Meeting)
[b]  Mr. E. K. Fuller  [c]  Queen's Cinema Electric Theatre, Walthamstow
[d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  19.  Greenhithe Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. S. W. Lineham
[c]  Wesleyan Church, London Rd., Greenhithe  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  20.  Marsh Street Men's Own (Evening Meeting:  Mixed)
[b]  Mr. W. F. Toynbee  [c]  Queen's Cinema Electric Theatre, Walthamstow
[d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  21.  Dartford P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. H. Keyte  [c]  Primitive Methodist Church,
Dartford, Kent  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  22.  Southall Men's Own Brotherhood  [b]  T. Owen, Esq., F.C.I.S.
[c]  Central Hall, Southall, W.  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  23.  Lloyd's Park P.S.A.  [b]  Rev. R. P. Campbell
[c]  United Methodist Church, Lloyd's Park  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  24.  Men and Women's Meeting  [b]  Mr. F. Mercer
[c]  Independent Church, Edmonton, North  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  25.  Chiswick Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. D. J. Hawkins  [c]  Brotherhood Hall,
Turnham Green Terrace  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  26.  Abney Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. W. A. Procktor  [c]  Abney Church,
Stoke Newington  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  27.  Uxbridge P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. W. Ashton, J.P.
[c]  Old Meeting House (Congl.), Uxbridge  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  28.  West Ealing P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. S. Garrard
[c]  Primitive Methodist Church, West Ealing  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  29.  New England P.S.A.  [b]  Sir Richard Winfrey, M.P.
[c]  P.S.A. Hall, Peterborough, Northampton  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  30.  Shern Hall Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. James Ellis
[c]  United Methodist Church, Walthamstow  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  31.  Leighton Men's Meeting  [b]  Mr. G. F. Drew  [c]  Corn Exchange,
Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  32.  Pembury Grove P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. Ernest Prior
[c]  United Methodist Church, Clapton  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  33.  Shepherd's Bush Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. F. C. Simpson
[c]  Shepherd's Bush Tabernacle (Baptist)  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  34.  East Ham Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. G. Sorrell  [c]  Central Hall,
Barking Road, East Ham  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  35.  Botwell Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. J. Matson  [c]  The Cinema,
Hayes, Middlesex  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  36.  Kingsland P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. J. Harding  [c]  Congregational Church,
High Street, Kingsland  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  37.  Heathfield Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. Hy. H. Castle
[c]  Recreation Hall, Heathfield, Sussex  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  38.  Men's Own Brotherhood  [b]  Rev. A. Hallack, M.A.
[c]  Angel Street Church, Worcester  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  39.  Greenwich P.S.A.  [b]  Rev. W. T. Penny  [c]  Central Hall,
London Street, Greenwich  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  40.  Hither Green P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. P. Duff  [c]  Congregational Church,
Torridon Road  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  41.  Whitefield's Men's Meeting  [b]  Rev. W. Charter Piggott
[c]  Whitefield's Tabernacle, Tottenham Court Road  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  42.  North End Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. Elwin Wrench  [c]  North End Hall,
Croydon, Surrey  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  43.  Trinity Men's Own  [b]  Mr. A. J. Walker  [c]  Congl. Church,
Victoria Park, Sth. Hackney  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  44.  Acton Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. James McIntosh  [c]  Congl. Church,
Churchfield Rd., Acton, W.  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  45.  P.S.A. Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. W. G. Brown  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
High Rd., Tottenham  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  46.  Northampton Men's Own  [b]  Rev. R. Morton Stanley, M.A., B.D.
[c]  Doddridge Church, Northampton  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  47.  Cheshunt and Waltham Cross P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. A. W. Ashmead
[c]  Drill Hall, Waltham Cross  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  48.  Staines P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. R. C. Edwards  [c]  Town Hall,
Staines, Middlesex  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  49.  Snell's Park P.S.A.  [b]  R. Green, Esq., C.C.
[c]  Congregational Church, Upper Edmonton  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  50.  Camberwell P.S.A.  [b]  Mr. H. A. Spong  [c]  Masonic Hall,
Camberwell, Surrey  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  51.  Norbury Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. J. L. Moody  [c]  Wesleyan Church,
London Rd., Norbury  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  52.  Hastings Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. A. G. Strickland
[c]  Congregational Church, Hastings, Sussex  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  53.  Evesham Men's Own Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. G. H. White
[c]  Cowl St. Church, Evesham, Worcestershire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  54.  South Bank Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. T. Bosher
[c]  South Bank-on-Tees, Yorkshire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  55.  Tees-side Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. T. Summers
[c]  Wes. Church South Bank, Yorkshire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  56.  Shepherd's Bush, P.S.A.  [b]  Rev. W. G. Davis
[c]  Wesleyan Church, Shepherd's Bush  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  57.  Stockton United  [b]  Mr. W. Weighell  [c]  Baptist Tabernacle,
Stockton-on-Tees  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  58.  Wembley Brotherhood  [b]  Mr. H. W. Hagger  [c]  Union Hall, Wembley
[d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  59.  Watford Men's Own  [b]  Mr. A. G. Baker  [c]  Beechen Grove,
Ch. Watford, Hertfordshire  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

[a]  60.  Clerkenwell Men's Own  [b]  Mr. R. G. Pursaill  [c]  Peel Institute,
Clerkenwell Green  [d]  Mr. S. T. Plaatje

       In addition to the Brotherhoods and P.S.A.'s, we are indebted to
     the Sisterhoods, Adult Schools and several Church bodies who gave us
  many occasions to speak, the response to our message being most gratifying.

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