University of Botswana History Department
(including the Archaeology Unit and Museum Studies)


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That Tremendous Voice  ||  Ditswa Mmung: The Archaeology of Botswana
Essays on Twentieth-Century Botswana History ||  Studies on the Church in Southern Africa
Other recent publications  ||  To end of page

Ditswa Mmung: The Archaeology of Botswana

Edited by Paul Lane, Andrew Reid & Alinah Segobye

Ditswa Mmung: The Archaeology of Botswana is the first comprehensive overview of the archaeology of Botswana. the chapters, written by specialists who have worked throughout Botswana on archaeology and related subjects, derive from papers presented at a symposium held by the Archaeology Unit of the University of Botswana.

Ditswa Mmung not only offers a review of the archaeological record itself, but also provides a consideration of the historical development of the discipline and an insight into the current organization ofcultural resource management and museum activity in Botswana.

Archaeology in Botswana has followed a path divergent from its development in the rest of Africa. In the colonial era the Kalahari sandveld and its margins were not perceived to be important for palaeontological research or the study of farming societies and states. By 1970 there had been only two archaeological excavations in Botswana. A concerted approach to archaeology began with ethnoarchaeological studies of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies conducted by a host of researchers from disciplines as diverse as anthropology, anatomy and biology. the 1980s saw research gather momentum, principally through the Archaeology Division of the National Museum. This documented in particular the later prehistory of the country. Now more than 2000 sites have been recorded, and over 100 of these have been excavated.

Surveys indicate that Botswana was not in fact the marginal frontier to farmer occupation it had been assumed to be. Rather, some prehistoric societies did actually prosper from its minerals, wildlife, dry climate and extensive rangelands well suited to cattle-raising.

This volume provides a comprehensive summary of the results of archaeological research up to 1997, and deals with all aspects of Botswana's archaeology from Toutswemogala to the Tsodilo Hills, from Ju/'hoan (!Kung San) to Jwaneng, and from a history of the development archaeology in the country to the historical archaeology of 19th and 20th century sites.

Ditswa Mmung: The Archaeology of Botswana. Edited by Paul Lane, Andrew Reid & Alinah Segobye

Co-published by The Botswana Society and Pula Press, Gaborone
264 pages 297 x 210mm, 16-page colour section
thread-sewn and hard cover

ISBN 99912 60 39 0 (Botswana Society)

ISBN 99912 61 58 3 (Pula Press)

Sponsored by the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation and the University of Botswana

Retail price P80

Available from the Botswana Society,
P.O. Box 71, Gaborone, Botswana
Fax 359.321
and from booksellers.

Trade orders to Pula Press, P.O. Box 91, Gaborone, Botswana
Fax 374.315


See also a review of this book by Neil Parsons.

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That Tremendous Voice

That Tremendous Voice: Essays in honour of Leonard Diniso Ngcongco, ed. Kofi Darkwah, was published in 1998 as a special number of Pula (see below). This book is a Festschrift in honour of Leonard Ngcongco's long career as an historian of Botswana.


Kofi Darkwah, "Leonard Diniso Ngcongco and Historical Studies in Botswana"

Kofi Darkwah, "Interview with Leonard Diniso Ngcongco"

H. M. Batibo, J. Moiloa, & N. Mosaka, "The Historical Implications of the Linguistic Relationship between Makua and Sotho Languages"

Neil Parsons, "Makgowa, Mahaletsela, and Maburu: Early Traders and Travellers before c. 1820"

Bruce S. Bennett, " 'Suppose a Black Man Tells a Story': the Dialogues of John Mackenzie the Missionary and Sekgoma Kgari the King and Rainmaker"

H. Zins, "The International Context of the Creation of the Bechuanaland Protectorate in 1885"

Christopher Saunders, "Ngcongco, Jabavu, and the South African War"

P. T. Mgadla, "Missionary Wives, Women, and Education: the Development of Literacy among Batswana, 1840 - 1937"

Bojosi Otlhogile, "A History of Botswana Through Case Law"

I. N. Mazonde, "Battlefield of Wits: Interface Between NGO's, Government and Donors at Xade Development Site"

Kofi Darkwah (ed), That Tremendous Voice:Essays in Honour of Leonard Diniso Ngcongco, special issue of Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies vol. 11 no. 1 (1997), ISBN 0256-2316.

Orders: Distribution arrangements are currently under review, but in the meantime orders may be sent to:
The Librarian (Pula Subscriptions), National Institute of Research
Private Bag UB 00708, P.O. University of Botswana
Gaborone, Botswana
Tel. (+267)356.364, or 355-2910; fax 357.573
Payment should be in banker's draft payable in Botswana Pula currency.

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Bruce Bennett (ed.), Essays on Twentieth Century Botswana History (Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies, 1999 vol. 13 nos 1-2 special issue)

A sample collection of some of the best student research essays not previously published. See our page on Student Research and Publications for the full list.

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Studies on the Church in Southern Africa (History/TRS Joint Series)

The Department of History and the Department of Theology and Religious Studies have for several years been publishing, under a Joint Editorial Board of the two departments, a series of short works entitled "Studies on the Church in Southern Africa". The titles published so far are:

Vol. 1: [Not available]

Vol. 2: Missionaries and Western Education in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1889 - 1904
Part Themba Mgadla, 1989

Vol. 3: The Conflict between the New Religious Movements and the State in the Protectorate of Botswana prior to 1949
Don Rempel Boschman, 1994

Vol. 4: The Origins and Development of the Ecumenical Movement in Botswana, 1965 - 1994
James Amanze, 1994

Vol. 5: An African Independent Church Leader: Bishop Smart Mthembu of the Head Mountain of God Apostolic Church in Zion
Obed Kealotswe, 1995

Vol. 6: The Origins and Development of the Methodist Mission in the Area of Present-Day Botswana
Jennifer Potter, 1995

Available from:
Rev. Dr. James Amanze, Department of Theology and Religious Studies,
University of Botswana, Gaborone Botswana.

Price: US$ 10.00 per copy, payable in Botswana Pula.

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Some other recent publications by members of the Department:

Maitseo Bolaane & P.T. Mgadla, Batswana, New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1997, ISBN0-8239-2008-9 (Heritage Library of African Peoples series)

Neil Parsons, King Khama, Emperor Joe and the Great White Queen : Victorian Britain Through African Eyes, 1998

These books are available from the Internet booksellers Amazon at :

How We Lived

Many members of the department were involved in writing a series of booklets called "How We Lived" - aimed at the rapidly changing History and Social Studies curricula in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, and particularly Curriculum 2005 in South Africa.

The series was designed to inject historical understanding and African context not only into the Learning Area of Human & Social Sciences, but also into Language & Communication, Technology, Mathematics, Natural Science, Economic and Management Sciences, and Life Orientation.

Some already published titles of "How We Lived" are displayed here. Other titles in production by our staff and other teachers in Botswana are:

We anticipate the production of a further title with assistance from our Archaeology Programme:

However changing South African education policy has resulted in a significant part of the series being put on hold.


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Copyright © 1999 University of Botswana History Department
Last updated 11 October 2008